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Iberville, commandant of the newly constructed fort, declared friendly intentions of the French by smoking the ceremonial calumet with the visiting dignitaries.For Indians, this ceremonial gesture was as serious as business ever gets: Smoking the pipe represents a sacred trust between the two groups of people, that members of each group are bound to help members of the other under any circumstance. Even though six outposts were established within the first few years, few “settlers” were willing or able to do even the minimal amount of work required to produce their own food.American Indians had never been exposed to the diseases Europeans brought with them, and consequently lacked the immunities Europeans had built up over countless generations of exposure. Further, Indian religious leaders and Elders complained bitterly when young people in their towns began to rely on European trade goods guns, knives, iron kettles instead of making their own tools in the traditional way.The proselytizing of Christian missionaries was especially reviled.When their wishes were denied, soldiers often turned to rape and other forms of brutality against Indian women.
They are composed of a variety, of now overlapping, but originally much more distinct, ethnic strands.It only took them seven years to acquire their first slaves, from whom they could order their daily bread rather than request it.The Invasion Of Louisiana In late February, 1699, Pierre le Moyne d’Iberville, his brother Jean Baptiste le Moyne de Bienville, and a small group of soldiers, sailors, and artisans dropped anchor in Biloxi Bay.Indians watched cautiously from a distance, out of sight of the intruders.Leaders from several Native towns in the vicinity finally got around to approaching the foreigners in the spring of 1699.